Down Payments

What Makes Low Down Payment Loans Possible?

Simply put, mortgage insurance protects the mortgage company against financial loss if a homeowner stops making mortgage payments. Mortgage companies usually require insurance on low down payment loans for protection in the event that the homeowner fails to make his or her payments. When a homeowner fails to make the mortgage payments, a default occurs and the home goes into foreclosure. Both the homeowner and the mortgage insurer lose in a foreclosure. The homeowner loses the house and all of the money put into it. The mortgage insurer will then have to pay the mortgage company's claim on the defaulted loan.

For this reason, it is crucial that the family buying the home can really afford it, not only at the time it is purchased, but throughout the time period of the loan.

Although the cost of the mortgage insurance is paid by the home buyer, or borrower, the mortgage insurer works directly with the mortgage company. Mortgage insurance is available to commercial banks, savings & loans and mortgage bankers, all of whom offer mortgage loans to home buyers.

Remember that mortgage insurance is not the same as credit life insurance, also called mortgage life insurance. This type of policy repays an outstanding mortgage balance upon the death of the person who took out the insurance policy.

The Secondary Market

The mortgage company's decision to use mortgage insurance is driven by the requirements of investors in the mortgage market. Because of the losses that could occur, major investors require mortgage insurance on all loans made with low down payments.

The three primary investors in home loans are Federal National Mortgage Association (Fannie Mae), Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (Freddie Mac) and Government National Mortgage Association (Ginnie Mae). By purchasing and selling residential mortgages, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac help keep money available for homes across the country.

Unlike Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, Ginnie Mae does not actually buy mortgages. It adds the guarantee of the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government to mortgage securities issued by mortgage companies.

The Two Choices: Government Insurance and Private Insurance

Now that we have explained how mortgage insurance works and why it is necessary, let's look at the basic kinds of mortgage insurance. Low down payment mortgages can be insured in two ways -- through the government or through the private sector. Mortgages backed by the government are insured by the Federal Housing Administration (FHA), the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) or the Farmers Home Administration (FmHA).

Although anyone can apply for FHA insurance, the other two government mortgage guarantee programs are much more targeted. The VA program is limited to qualified, eligible veterans and reservists. This program is very specialized, so contact your mortgage professional for the details. The FmHA insures loans for the construction and purchase of homes in rural communities.

Obtaining conventional financing is the alternative to obtaining a home loan backed by the government. Conventional mortgages are all home loans not guaranteed by the government, including those guaranteed by private mortgage insurers.

Although government and private insurance are based on the same concept of allowing families to get into homes with less cash down, there are many differences between the two. Often, your mortgage professional will play an important role in suggesting and deciding which insurance is selected.

Home buyers must make a down payment of at least 5% of a home's value to be considered for private mortgage insurance. However, under some special programs, the down payment requirement allows the buyer to use a gift or grant to cover 2% of the 5% down payment required by private mortgage insurers. The gift or grant may come from a friend, relative, community group or other organization.

Private mortgage insurance is available on a wide variety of home loans and there is no pre-set limit on the loan amount. Although differences such as these may affect whether the mortgage company prefers to work with government or conventional mortgages, your mortgage professional will discuss which one would be better for your situation.

With the wide variety of loans available, home buyers have the freedom to choose the type of loan that best suits their needs. Early on in the home buying process, it is a good idea to meet with several companies to compare the types of mortgages they offer and shop for the best price and terms. Best of all, working with a mortgage insurer can be very easy, whether your loan is insured by the FHA or a private mortgage insurance company, because your mortgage professional handles all of the arrangements.

By making lending money to home buyers safer, mortgage insurance helps more families get into homes of their own.

Down Payment Loans and Gifts

Loans and gifts can help with your down payment but you can not use this strategy for all loan programs. The most popular program for this tactic is the Federal Housing Administration or FHA. FHA allows 100% gift funds for your down payment. The gift can be from any relative or can be collected through new innovative programs, like the Bridal Registry where couples receive money into an account that can be used for the down payment.

Another popular tactic, which can be used in a wider range of programs, is to borrow from your 401K program. If you have a 401K program with your employer, you can withdraw without a penalty for your down payment and pay it back over a specified period. There are some drawbacks, the payment will be used in qualifying and your 401K account will not continue to grow as fast. Even with these drawbacks, it is often a smart move if this is your only option.

Down Payment - Grant That Is Never Repaid By The Homebuyer!

There are national non-profit organizations dedicated to assisting homebuyers with their down payment and closing costs.

Buyers can receive a free gift under these programs. Gift amounts vary with each program but are generally available in amounts of 3% with some programs, all the way up to $22,500 with others. Buyers never have to repay these gifts.

It's easy to receive a free gift from these programs, however qualification guidelines do vary with each program. Each program requires that buyers must qualify for any eligible loan program with their lender (there are many programs that qualify).

While this is the ONLY qualifying requirement of some programs, others have requirements such as requiring that the buyer complete a Home Ownership Counseling Course or provide 1% of their own funds into the transaction. In addition some programs have income/asset restrictions, recapture clauses, reserves required, or geographic boundaries. Each program can provide you with their specific requirements and/or limitations

These programs generally participate with FHA, Conforming, and Non-Conforming loan products. Most of these programs do not underwrite the loan or add any cost in the form of points, fees, etc., they simply provide the gift for the down payment and/or closing costs.

These downpayment assistance programs can be used for Single Family (1-4 unit) homes, Manufactured/Modular Homes, Condominiums, Townhouses, Existing or New Construction, Rehab and Non-Conforming.

Qualifying for a Low Down Payment Loan

To be considered for a low down payment loan, you generally need to have:

  • Sufficient income to support the monthly mortgage payment
  • Enough cash to cover the down payment
  • Sufficient cash to cover normal closing costs and related expenses (explained below)
  • A good credit background that indicates your payment history or "willingness to pay"
  • Sufficient appraisal value, which shows the house is at least equal to the purchase price
  • In some instances, a cash reserve equivalent to two monthly mortgage payments

Closing costs, or settlement costs, are paid when the home buyer and the seller meet to exchange the necessary papers for the house to be legally transferred. On the average, closing costs run approximately 2% to 3% of the house price. This percentage may vary, depending on where you live.

Closing costs include the loan origination fee (if not already paid), points, prepaid homeowner's insurance, appraisal fee, lawyer's fee, recording fee, title search and insurance, tax adjustments, agent commissions, mortgage insurance (if you are putting less than 20% down) and other expenses. Your mortgage professional will give you a more exact estimate of your closing costs.

Points are finance charges that are calculated at closing. Each point equals 1% of the loan amount. For example, 2 points on a $100,000 loan equals $2,000. Companies may charge 1, 2 or 3 points in up-front costs in addition to the down payment. The more points you pay, the lower your interest rate will be. In some cases, you may be able to finance the points.

So How Much of a Mortgage Can You Afford?

There are two basic formulas commonly used to determine how much of a mortgage you can reasonably afford. These formulas are called qualifying ratios because they estimate the amount of money you should spend on mortgage payments in relation to your income and other expenses.

It is important to remember that the following ratios may vary and each application is handled on an individual basis, so the guidelines are just that -- guidelines. There are many affordability programs, both government and conventional, that have more lenient requirements for low- and moderate-income families.

Many of these programs involve financial counseling for low- and moderate-income people interested in buying a home and in return, offer more lenient requirements.

Generally speaking, to qualify for conventional loans, housing expenses should not exceed 26% to 28% of your gross monthly income. For FHA loans, the ratio is 29% of gross monthly income. Monthly housing costs include the mortgage principal, interest, taxes and insurance, often abbreviated PITI. For example, if your annual income is $30,000, your gross monthly income is $2,500, times 28% = $700. So you would probably qualify for a conventional home loan that requires monthly payments of $700.

Any expenses that extend 11 months or more into the future are termed long-term debt, such as a car loan. Total monthly costs, including PITI and all other long-term debt, should equal no greater than 33% to 36% of your gross monthly income for conventional loans. Using the same example, $2,500 x 36% = $900. So the total of your monthly housing expenses plus any long-term debts each month cannot exceed $900. For FHA the ratio is 41%.

Maximum allowable monthly housing expense
26% - 28% of gross monthly income - Conventional
29% of gross monthly income - FHA

Maximum allowable monthly housing expense and long-term debt
33% - 36% of gross monthly income - Conventional
41% of gross monthly income - FHA

One way to determine how much to spend for housing is to compare your monthly income with monthly long-term obligations and expenses. Use the worksheet, "Evaluating Your Financial Resources," to determine how much money you can spend on housing. Be sure to only include income you can definitely count on.

When budgeting to buy a home, it is important to allow enough money for additional expenses such as maintenance and insurance costs. If you are purchasing an existing home, gather information such as utility cost averages and maintenance costs from previous owners or tenants to help you better prepare for homeownership.

Homeowner's insurance or property insurance is another cost you will have to consider. The lending institution holding the mortgage will require insurance in an amount sufficient to cover the loan. However, to protect the full value of your investment, you might want to consider purchasing insurance that provides the full replacement cost if the home is destroyed. Some insurance only provides a fixed dollar amount which may be insufficient to rebuild a badly damaged house.

Down Payment Assistance

The best-kept secret behind the sustained strength of the residential real estate market is the creation of a new pool of buyers who can afford their mortgage payments but lack the cash for a down payment. In the past these potential buyers had little hope of owning a home. Today, thousands of these individuals are becoming homeowners.

According to both HUD and Minneapolis Federal Reserve, the number one barrier to homeownership in the U.S. is the lack of downpayment money. With President Bush's initiative to increase minority homeownership by 5.5 million by the year 2010, there is an increased need for organizations that can provide assistance through the use of private capital.

Through the use of private capital, the non-profit down-payment industry now makes possible over 17,000 home purchases each month for low to moderate income buyers. Today these Downpayment Assistance Programs (which are not just for 1st time homebuyers) are helping many people live the dream of home ownership.

These organizations are supported through contributions made by home sellers. The donations help to replenish the pool of funds that are used for future buyers. Additionally the non-profits charge a small service fee, the proceeds of which allow them to stay operational.

Buyers are provided with gifts from the non-profits, which can be used towards their downpayment and/or closing costs. These are true gifts that do not need to be repaid. The grants range from 2%-10% of the purchase price of the home. Home sellers typically agree to participate because they believe that they are receiving a fair offer for their home while at the same time they are benefiting from making a donation to a non-profit organization.

Benefits to Home Buyers

  • Get into a home
  • Begin building equity
  • Start taking advantage of tax benefits
  • May not have to deplete their entire savings

Benefits to Home Sellers

  • Expose their home to a larger pool of buyers
  • Typically will receive full price offers
  • Sell their home faster
  • Added benefit of making a donation to a non-profit

The organizations differ slightly with some providing additional benefits for the homebuyer. For instance the Home Downpayment Gift Foundation has a program called "Home Mortgage Protection Plus". This Program covers gift recipient who are enrolled in the Platinum Program against involuntary loss of employment. Should the gift recipient(s) lose their job during their first year of home ownership, the Foundation will provide for up to six months of mortgage payments (maximum of $1800.00 per month in P.I.T.I.) on their behalf.

The non-profits strongly encourage Home Ownership Counseling prior to the home purchase and some provide post-purchase counseling to its gift recipients.

The Gift Programs generally participate with FHA, Conforming, and Non-Conforming Loan Products. The downpayment assistance program can be used for Single Family (1-4 unit) homes, Manufactured/Modular Homes, Condominiums, Townhouses, Existing or New Construction, Rehab and Non-Conforming.

While they do not provide any lending services, they can make available local mortgage professionals who are familiar with their Program. For more information about these programs you can contact the Home Downpayment Gift Foundation at 1-888-856-4600 or visit their website at www.homedownpayment.org.

State Housing and Finance Authorities

Alabama Housing Finance Authority
P.O. Box 230909
Montgomery, AL 36123-0909
(334) 244-9200
(800) 325-AHFA (2432)

Alaska Housing Finance Corp.
P.O. Box 101020
Anchorage, AK 99510-1020
(907) 330-8447
(800) 478-2432 (outside Anchorage, but within Alaska)

Arizona Department of Commerce Office of Housing Development
3800 N. Central Ave., Suite 1500
Phoenix, AZ 85012-1991
(602) 280-1300
(800) 528-8421 (Toll free in Arizona)

Arkansas Development Finance Authority
100 Main Street / Suite 200
Little Rock, AR 72201
(501) 682-5900

California Housing Finance Agency
1121 L Street
Sacramento, CA 95814
(916) 322-3991

California Department of Housing & Community Development
P.O. Box 952050
Sacramento, CA 94252-2050
(916) 445-4782

Colorado Housing and Finance Authority
1981 Blake Street
Denver, CO 80202-1272
(303) 297-2432
(800) 877-2432

Connecticut Housing Finance Authority
999 West Street
Rocky Hill, CT 06067-4005
(860) 721-9501

Delaware State Housing Authority
Division of Housing and Community Development
18 the Green
Dover, DE 19901
(302) 739-4263

DC Housing Finance Agency
815 Florida Avenue, N.W.
Washington, DC 20001
(202) 777-1600

Florida Housing Finance Corporation
227 North Bronough Street / Suite 5000
Tallahassee, Florida 32301-1329
(850) 488-4197

Georgia Residential Finance Authority
60 Executive Park South, N.E.
Atlanta, GA 30329
(404) 679-4840

Hawaii Housing Authority
1002 North School Street
P.O. Box 17907
Honolulu, HI 96817
(808) 848-3277

Idaho Housing Agency
P.O. Box 7899
565 W. Myrtle
Boise, ID 83707-1899
(208) 331-4882

Illinois Housing Development Authority
401 N. Michigan Avenue / Suite 900
Chicago, IL 60611
(800) 942-8439
(312) 836-5200

Indiana Housing Finance Authority
115 West Washington St., #1350, South Tower
Indianapolis, IN 46204
(317) 232-7777
(800) 872-0371 (Toll free in Indiana)

Iowa Finance Authority
100 East Grand Avenue / Suite 250
Des Moines, IA 50309
(515) 242-4990
(800) 432-7230

Kansas Office of Housing Department of Commerce
1000 S.W. Jackson Street, Suite 100
Topeka, Kansas 66612-1354
(785) 296-3481

Kentucky Housing Corporation
1231 Louisville Road
Frankfort, KY 40601-6191
(502) 564-7630
(800) 633-8896 (Toll free in Kentucky)

Louisiana Housing Finance Agency
200 Lafayette Street / Suite 300
Banton Rouge, LA 70801-1203
(225) 342-1320

Maine State Housing Authority
353 Water Street
Augusta, ME 04330-4633
(207) 626-4600
(800) 452-4668

Maryland Department of Housing and Community Development
100 Community Place
Crownsville MD 21032-2023
(410) 514-7000
(800) 756-0119 (Toll-Free in Maryland)

Massachusetts Housing Financing Agency
One Beacon Street
Boston MA 02108
(617) 854-1000

Michigan State Housing Development Authority
735 E. Michigan Ave
P.O. Box 30044
Lansing, Michigan 48912
(517) 373-8370

Minnesota Housing Finance Agency
400 Sibley Street, Suite 300
St. Paul, MN 55101
(651) 296-7608
(800) 657-3769

Mississippi Home Corporation
735 Riverside Drive
Jackson, MS 39202
(601) 718-4642

Missouri Housing Development Commission
3435 Broadway
Kansas City, MO 64111-2415
(816) 759-6600

Montana Board of Housing
P.O. Box 200528
301 S. Park Ave.
Helena, MT 59620-0528
(406) 841-2840

Nebraska Investment Finance Authority
200 Commerce Court,
1230 "O" Street,
Lincoln, NE 68508-1402
(402) 434-3900
(800) 204-6432

Nevada Department of Commerce Housing Division
1802 N. Carson Street / Suite 154
Carson City, NV 89701
(775) 687-4258

New Hampshire Housing Finance Authority
P.O. Box 5087
Manchester, NH 03108
(603) 472-8623

New Jersey Housing Agency
637 S. Clinton Ave.
P. O. Box 18550
Trenton, NJ 08650-2085
(609) 278 - 7400

Mortgage Finance Authority
344 4th Street SW
Albuquerque, NM 87102
(505) 843-6880
(800) 444-6880 (Toll free in New Mexico)

State of New York Division of Housing and Community Renewel
One Fordham Plaza / 2nd Floor
Bronx, NY 10458
(718) 563-5678

New York State Housing Authority
641 Lexington Avenue
New York, NY 10022
(212) 688-4000
(800) 382-4663

North Carolina Housing Finance Agency
3508 Bush Street
Raleigh, NC 27609-7509
(919) 877-5700

North Dakota Housing Finance Agency
1500 East Capitol Avenue
PO Box 1535
Bismarck, ND 58502-1535
(701) 328-8080
(800) 292-8621 (Toll free in North Dakota)

Ohio Housing Finance Agency
57 East Main Street
Columbus, Ohio 43215-5135
(614) 466-7970

Oklahoma Housing Finance Agency
P.O. Box 26720
Oklahoma City, OK 73126-0720
(405) 848-1144
(800) 256-1489

Oregon Housing Agency Housing Division
1600 State Street
PO Box 14508
Salem, OR 97309-0409
(503) 378-4343

Pennsylvania Housing Finance Agency
2101 North Front Street
Harrisburg, PA 17105-8029
(717) 780-3800

Rhode Island Housing and Mortgage Finance Corp.
44 Washington St.
Providence, RI 02903-1721
(401) 751-5566

South Carolina State Housing Financing and Development Authority
919 Bluff Road
Columbia, South Carolina 29201
(803) 734-2000

South Dakota Housing Development Authority
404 James Robertson Parkway, Suite 1114
Nashville, Tennessee 37243-0900
(615) 741-2400

Tennessee Housing Development Agency
404 James Robertson Parkway, Suite 1114
Nashville, Tennessee 37243-0900
(615) 741-2400

Texas Housing Agency
P.O. BOX 13941
Austin, TX 78711-3941
(512) 475-3800

Utah Housing Finance Agency
554 S. 300 E.
Salt Lake City, UT 84111
(801) 521-6950
(800) 284-6950 (Toll free in Utah)
(800) 344-0452 (Outside Utah)

Vermont Housing Finance Agency
P.O. Box 408
Burlington, VT 05402-0408
(802) 864-5743

Vermont State Housing Authority
One Prospect Street
Montpelier, Vermont 05602
(802) 828-3295
(800) 820-5119 (Message Line)

Virginia Housing Development Authority
601 S. Belvedere Street
Richmond, VA 23220
(804) 782-1986
(800) 968-7837

Washington State Housing Finance Commission
1000 Second Avenue, Suite 2700
Seattle, WA 98104-1046
(206) 464-7139
(800) 767-4663 (Toll free in Washington State)

West Virginia Housing Development Fund
814 Virginia Street East
Charleston, WV 25301
(304) 345-6475

Wisconsin Housing and Economic Development Authority
201 W. Washington Ave., Ste. 700
P.O. Box 1728
Madison, WI 53701-1728
(608) 266-7884
(800) 334-6873

Wyoming Community Development Authority
155 North Beech
Casper, Wyoming 82602
(307) 265-0603

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